Requirements For Steel Scrap In Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking
Requirements for Steel Scrap in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking
Scrap steel is the basic raw material for electric arc furnace steelmaking, and its consumption accounts for about 70% to 90% of the steel material. When molten iron is used in the oxygen converter to make steel, due to the abundant heat, up to 30% of scrap steel can be added as a coolant to adjust the blowing temperature. Cooling with scrap steel can reduce the consumption of iron and steel materials, slagging materials, and oxygen, and it has a more stable effect than iron ore cooling with less splashing. Graphite electrodes are widely used in electric arc furnaces for melting steel scrap.
The quality of scrap steel has a great influence on the technical and economic indicators of steelmaking, and the source of scrap steel is often very miscellaneous, so the management and processing of scrap steel are very important. Scrap steel should be carefully checked before being put into the furnace to prevent the mixing of closed containers, explosives, and toxic substances, and attention should be paid to prevent the mixing of lead, zinc, tin, copper, and other non-ferrous metals. In addition, mud sand, refractory materials, and slag brought in by scrap steel should be minimized.
Alloy steel scraps should be carefully grouped according to the alloy elements contained in them, and stored separately, so that they can be used for smelting corresponding alloy steel by the electric furnace return method, recycling alloy elements and reducing the cost of steel. For steel scraps with excessive dimensions and unit weight, they should be disassembled and cut in advance so that they can be loaded into the furnace smoothly without damaging the furnace lining and accelerating melting. Thin materials should be packaged or pressed to shorten the loading time.
Light and thin materials with severe corrosion and oil stains are not suitable for return smelting. In recent years, steel mills using electric arc furnaces have developed rapidly at home and abroad. Since the required steel scrap is mainly purchased from domestic or foreign countries, the purchased steel scrap is often mixed with various residual alloy elements, which makes the smelting of many steel types difficult. Therefore, sponge iron obtained by reducing iron ore at a lower temperature is being promoted instead of scrap steel as raw material for electric furnace steelmaking.
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